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Waterfall Construction

1) A concrete, steel reinforced slab is poured into place on compacted soil base (see corner exposed in picture, left fore ground). Then a second foundation, (steel mesh reinforced concrete) with liner and plumbing sandwiched between the two pours.

 Note bulkhed fitting in the background of the foundation. This is the filtered water feed to the waterfall from the filter and pump. The purpose of the second pour is to allow for sharp/rough/heavy concete and rocks to be positioned into place without compromising the liner. The back side of the liner is built up with a common concrete block, creating a u-shaped wall “pocket” for the waterfall to be built within.

  Key primary large stones are postioned first. As inner flanking stone work goes into place, so does the foundation pour continue up the inner walls of the pocket, guarding the liner from sharp rocks. Note steel mesh which continues up in the flanking inner walls of the pocket
2) Large stones postioned in the pocket are wired into place until further stone work / mortared in place rock goes into place, supporting the large stones. Steel mesh is more visible in this view as well as a bulkhead fitting which feeds the waterfall.

For waterfall construction where substrate rock exists (a hillside) such that a formed pocket (as pictured above) is not practical, see this link: www.aquaart.com/waterfall.html
3) When space is at a premium (when is it not!) common styrofoam sheet material is used to form interior thin walls which make up the waterfall pockets. Once walls are poured, stone work goes into place, making better use of a confined space and less ultimate space otherwise occupied by stone.  
  6) Liner is trimmed to size, pond liner (in this case, fiberglass) is sanded, cleaned with straight vinegar, dried, then taped with liner tape to pond liner.
7) Straight vinegar does a great job of getting concrete mess/ residue off fiberglass and EPDM liner. Also, it cleans up smuges on stone work for mortar work. 8) Note: Thoughtful, tidy mortar work and careful placement of stones with smooth troweling results in an environment not only better for Koi but creates far less debris (mulm) build up for a more minimum maintenace Koi pond.

Using mortar is a more secure, safer, longer lasting, more minimum maintenance way to build a waterfall or border edge stone work. Using foam is an immediate gratification method which results in failure after a relatively short time.
9) Custom fiberglass planter pocket added to this unqiue pond installation is intended to be primarily a Koi pond. Stones are postioned in place prior to final and mortar in place technique. “Inset curb” shelf, which can be created with EPDM liner installation type ponds, results in a more natural water cut finish water line than simply cantilever style border edge stonework.

Please see www.aquaart.com/profile.html for further information on "Inset curb shelf" and pond profile shapes.
 
   
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